Mobile Homes

SIC 2451

Companies in this industry

Industry report:

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing mobile homes and nonresidential mobile buildings. These units are generally more than 35 feet long, at least 8 feet wide, and often are equipped with wheels. Trailers that are generally 35 feet long or less, 8 feet wide or less, and with self-contained facilities are classified in SIC 3792: Travel Trailers and Campers. Portable wood buildings not equipped with wheels are classified in SIC 2452: Prefabricated Wood Buildings and Components.

Industry Snapshot

After a decade of unprecedented growth in the 1990s, manufactured home builders entered the twenty-first century with a thud, struggling through their worst time since emerging from the recreational vehicle industry in the 1960s. A short-lived reprieve in 2005 was followed the next year with sales that fell to 1961 levels. Conditions were not expected to rebound for several years, during which time the market was expected to absorb the surplus of mobile homes and trailers, many unused, that served as temporary housing for Hurricane Katrina victims.

As a general rule, whenever the traditional housing market thrives, the manufactured housing market suffers and vice versa. By the late 2000s, as interest rates and housing prices climbed in tandem, house-hunters were increasingly attracted to mobile homes.

Background and Development

At the beginning of the mobile home industry, its products answered the need of a small percentage of the U.S. population as temporary shelter primarily used by migrant farm workers and equally nomadic construction workers. Although these were not the only buyers of mobile homes, they accounted for the bulk of the industry's sales and, consequently, limited the potential of the industry's future expansion. Because both of these market niches composed a negligible portion of the nation's consumer base and any significant increase in their size, especially in proportion to the rate of population growth, appeared unlikely, the mobile home industry seemed destined to remain a relatively small industry.

This restrictive quality inherent in the industry's market did not inhibit mobile home manufacturers for long, however. Once a product was made and marketed that could attract a more diverse clientele and fulfill a need overlooked by the traditional construction industry, sales increased. Nonetheless, during the 1920s, when mobile homes were first marketed, and into the 1930s, the industry began to take shape, and sales figures remained unsubstantial.

The onset of World War II provided an unexpected boost for mobile home manufacturers, infusing the industry with production orders for military personnel shelters (essentially miniature barracks on wheels) and mobile housing for defense workers. By the conclusion of the war, mobile home manufacturers had several years of comparatively prodigious production levels, primarily due to defense contracts. As a result of this war-related work, mobile homes became familiar fixtures in many encampments across the country. Moreover, once the war ended, the United States had, in effect, a standing army in the new social class of military personnel subject to the itinerant demands of military life. Mobile homes afforded members of the armed forces, especially those with families, the housing flexibility that their frequent relocation orders required, supplying mobile home manufacturers with a new market niche for their products. Two years after the war ended, in 1947, the mobile home retail market neared $150 million in sales from the sale of 60,000 units.

The following year sales eclipsed $200 million and unit sales leapt to 85,000 as the mobile home industry began to show signs of dramatic growth. In 1949, however, optimism regarding the industry's growth potential faded. Retail sales for the year were a disappointing $122 million and unit sales plunged to 46,200.

As the industry entered the 1950s, it recovered from the dismal showings of 1949, posting successive gains in annual sales until 1956, a year that marked the beginning of a new era in the mobile home industry. Originally, the size of mobile homes varied in length, but always measured 8 feet in width to conform to the maximum width permissible by law for vehicles on highways. These homes, after all, were intended to be mobile. Nonetheless, in 1956 manufacturers first introduced 10-foot-wide models, or "10 wides," which quickly became the industry standard. By 1958, 10 wides accounted for 65 percent of the industry's shipments and two years later, represented more than 85 percent.

Manufacturers quickly became aware that mobility was not the primary asset mobile homes offered consumers. Instead, consumers were attracted by their affordability. To be sure, mobility was still an important feature, but mobile home owners moved their units only once every two and a half years, making them a semi-permanent dwelling for many, and for others a house on wheels that never moved. In addition, mobile homes came from the factory equipped with all the basic domestic accessories homeowners or home renters ordinarily would have to buy separately giving the mobile home buyer a total package with a significantly lower price tag than a bare conventional home.

The size of the mobile home industry reached respectable proportions by relying solely on the production of 8-foot-wide models, with $462 million in sales of 111,900 units in 1955, the last year in which 8-foot-wide models represented 100 percent of the mobile home market. Although 10 wides quickly dominated the market, their introduction did not initially spark an exponential increase in unit production or in the industry's overall revenues. However, they did provide the industry with a stable and potentially rewarding foundation on which to build. Newly married couples and those over 50 years of age became the industry's two largest market segments, and were attracted by the affordability and flexibility mobile home housing offered at a time when both these components of the U.S. populace were growing faster than the rate of population growth as a whole.

Along with these developments came the ills suffered by any industry whose target market transformed into a more lucrative audience. The growing pains for the mobile home industry came in the form of increased competition during the late 1950s as the low initial investment required to establish a mobile home manufacturing facility enabled hopeful entrepreneurs to enter the industry, which caused the market to become saturated. The influx of small, single-plant manufacturers created considerable turmoil in the mobile home market in 1960 and 1961, when a number of small manufacturers failed and their inventories entered the market at panic prices. Unit shipments for the industry fell from 120,500 in 1959 to 90,200 in 1961, and industry revenues dropped by roughly $100 million to $505 million.

Subsequent anxiety led to a period of industry consolidation during the early 1960s as a handful of publicly owned conglomerates wrested control of the market from a scattered group of small, privately owned manufacturers through mergers and acquisitions. However, the industry continued to be populated primarily by small, independent companies (the high cost of shipping mobile homes made large, centralized manufacturing consortiums impractical), but for the first time the industry's leaders were primarily comparatively larger, publicly held companies, such as Elkhart, Indiana's Skyline Homes; Dryden, Michigan's Champion Home Builders; New York's Divco-Wayne Corp.; and Redman Industries.

By 1963 the mobile home industry had recovered. Retail revenues stood at $862 million and unit sales topped 150,000, surpassing for the first time the figures recorded in 1959. By the following year, mobile homes accounted for one of every nine housing starts, with approximately 220 companies competing for the burgeoning business occasioned by the advent of 10 wides, which finally came to fruition six years later. Twelve-foot-wide mobile homes had been introduced two years earlier, in 1962, as the inevitable offshoot of 10 wides, garnering an encouraging 10 percent share of the industry's 1964 sales. "Doublewides," the joining of two 10 wides to form a single unit, were also widely popular as the industry entered the mid-1960s, giving owners up to 1,000 square feet of living space.

The consolidation of the previous years left the five largest companies controlling 30 percent of the market, the demographics of which had changed considerably in the priors 20 years. Families whose head of the household was older than 51 years of age represented 35 percent of all mobile home residents, but only 8 percent of these owners were retired. Nomadic construction and factory workers, once the mainstays of the mobile home market, accounted for 19 percent of mobile home ownership, yet were outnumbered by professional and business people, who represented 25 percent of all owners.

Added to these changes in the composition of the mobile home market was the emergence of commercial and industrial customers as a new market segment in the early 1960s. Businesses such as banks used mobile "offices" as temporary branch outlets, manufacturing companies requiring temporary additional space to execute contract work used mobile home structures, and school systems used mobile homes as portable classrooms. These mobile "home" structures were custom built or converted from existing mobile home units, requiring the retooling of production machinery that many of the large mobile home manufacturers found disruptive to their assembly lines. Consequently, the smaller manufacturers in the industry benefited from the majority of the commercial and industrial business, building each structure according to the specifications required for its particular application. Although industrial and commercial business accounted for only 5 percent of the industry's total sales during the early and mid-1960s, the market was just opening and promised to develop into a lucrative component of the mobile home industry.

By 1965 mobile homes accounted for one of every 6.5 housing starts, representing 324,050 unit sales for the year. Total revenues for the industry exceeded $1.2 billion. The industry also demonstrated encouraging independence from the traditional housing market in the mid-1960s as it matured and began to stand on its own, rather than exist as an adjunct to the construction industry. With the end of its dependence on the cyclical housing market, the mobile home industry was buoyed by the deleterious economic conditions. Mobile home manufacturers gained business from prospective homebuyers unwilling to spend the amount of money required to build homes.

In the late 1960s, the optimism pervading the industry grabbed the attention of outsiders, leading to some fantastic and, in retrospect, starry-eyed predictions for the industry's future. Some of these futuristic visions were extrapolations of the diverse applications for which mobile homes were used during the late 1960s. One such use was as an alternative to low-cost housing, which was particularly well suited for mobile homes, considering their affordability and mobility. In 1968, three cities (Atlanta, Chicago, and Washington, D.C.) began to use mobile homes as temporary housing for individuals forced from their homes as a result of rehabilitation or redevelopment projects. Mobile homes, with their wheels removed, were also stacked on top of each other to form low-rise apartment complexes in Baltimore, Maryland; Amherst, Massachusetts; and Michigan City, Indiana. From these uses, plans for mobile home "skyscraper" structures were born. Architects were enthusiastic, envisioning the creation of mobile modular homes that could be removed and reinserted into high-rise structures, following the travels of the owner. Although such structures never materialized, their creation, at least on paper, was indicative of the promising conditions characterizing the mobile home industry in the late 1960s.

Entering the 1970s, the industry had enjoyed a decade of prodigious growth, expanding at an annual rate of 20 percent throughout the 1960s and at 30 percent in the last two years of the decade. Unit shipments in 1970 topped 400,000, representing one mobile home for every 4.5 conventional housing starts, and revenues for the industry approached $3 billion.

By this time, several characteristics demonstrated by the industry augured increased growth for mobile home manufacturers, although some potentially hazardous market conditions loomed. On the favorable side, the average price for a mobile home increased only negligibly, from $5,600 to $6,000, throughout the 1960s, whereas single-family housing construction costs had risen sharply. This disparity was primarily due to the cheap labor costs incurred by mobile home manufacturers compared to the wages construction contractors had to pay, increasing the industry's grip on the under-$20,000 housing market. In fact, considering that mobile home units had increased in size since the introduction of 10 wides in 1956 with only marginal increases in price during the intervening years, the price per square foot actually declined. Additionally, financing a mobile home, a process resembling the financing of an automobile, was made easier with the enactment of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968, which permitted savings and loan associations to finance mobile home purchases.

The negative factors affecting the industry's future, however, were numerous. The most pressing was the decreasing space available for mobile homes. For the 400,000 units that entered the market in 1969, there were only an estimated 118,000 new mobile home park sites available, and the number of sites for future mobile home parks was scarce. Almost entirely relegated to rural areas, mobile home parks, in which roughly 80 percent of all mobile homes were parked, were generally not well respected by urban residential neighborhoods and were often banned from existing alongside conventional houses through zoning restrictions. This left mobile home manufacturers in the 1970s unable to respond to the urgent need for low-income housing, which was a large segment of the under-$20,000 housing market from which manufacturers derived almost all of their earnings. This additional business could have offset, in part, the mounting competition that continued to plague the industry, making market saturation an imminent reality. In 1969 alone, 110 manufacturers joined the industry, attracted by the robust growth demonstrated by the industry and the low capital investment required to establish a mobile home manufacturing facility.

Despite the development of these conditions, the industry posted the most successful year in its history in 1972, recording remarkable production and sales volumes that would stand as benchmarks for the rest of the decade. Unit shipments totaled 575,940 for the year and sales reached the $4 billion plateau, quelling observations that the industry was headed for less prosperous years. Two years later, the two decades of solid growth that had been marred only by several minor economic glitches came to a halt.

Unit shipments in 1974 plunged 42 percent and fell an additional 35 percent the next year to 212,690. Revenues in 1975 were $2.4 billion. The dramatic revenue spiral, however, did not reflect the actual extent of the losses incurred by the industry during these two years; artificially buoyed by soaring inflation, revenues in reality were lower than they appeared.

Diverse reasons were blamed for the severe losses suffered by the industry. Perhaps the single greatest contributing factor to the downturn in the industry was the economic downturn affecting the nation during this time. Unemployment rose and consumer income dropped, resulting in a glut of repossessed mobile homes (over 100,000) on the market. This, in turn, made financing a mobile home purchase more difficult, as tight money conditions combined with increasing size and price extended loan payback terms from between 5 and 10 years to between 10 and 20 years. Because mobile homes depreciated in value, rather than appreciating like conventional houses, lenders were reluctant to provide loans, rejecting 60 percent of all mobile home loan applications during the two-year slump. Compounding these difficulties was the growing popularity of condominiums, which encroached on the mobile home market, eroding the customer base further.

As a result of the losses sustained during this period, the proliferation of manufacturing facilities that preceded the recession (a net total of 295 plants had opened between 1969 and 1973) was halted and then reversed when more than 40 percent of the 550 firms involved in the market went bankrupt. Production capacity dropped 43 percent from 1973 levels, nearly matching the increase in capacity during the four years prior to the downturn.

To affect a recovery, several measures were taken, some of which were initiated by the mobile home industry itself, while others came through federal intervention. Internally, mobile home manufacturers increased their output of larger mobile homes, concentrating on 14-foot-wide models and doublewides. Quality control was also a problem, especially by unscrupulous manufacturers who entered the field in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Many of these companies failed during the recession, which solved part of the problem, but the more reputable companies intensified their efforts to produce high-quality mobile units. To increase consumer confidence, the federal government mandated uniform building codes and warranty standards that made entry into the industry by unethical manufacturers more difficult.

The federal government also eased mobile home financing by permitting federally chartered credit unions, which historically were short-term lenders, to provide longer-term credit to mobile home buyers. In addition, the Veterans Administration increased the loan guarantee limits for mobile homes from 30 percent to 50 percent.

These improvements led to a slow recovery of the mobile home industry. Because of their expanded size and better workmanship, mobile homes began to appreciate in value after the mid-1970s. They began to increase their presence in conventional housing neighborhoods, as zoning restrictions eased. In 1976 unit shipments increased 16 percent to 246,120, still far below the level recorded in 1972, but nevertheless an improvement from the successive, precipitous drops suffered during the previous two years.

Also aiding the industry's recovery was the escalating price of conventional housing. Between 1974 and 1978, the average price of a new house rose 61 percent from $38,900 to $62,500, while the average price of a mobile home in 1978 was $15,900. Mobile homes had increased at a greater rate than conventional houses during this period, leaping 71 percent from the 1974 average price of $9,300, but the price disparity between the two housing choices was great enough to stimulate sales for mobile home manufacturers. In fact, the soaring costs of conventional houses attracted a new breed of mobile home customers by the end of the decade--middle class consumers.

Although these developments provided enough of an impetus to pull the industry out of its doldrums, a complete turnaround was not achieved, and growth of the industry remained stunted as it entered the 1980s. Unit shipments in 1980 were still well below half the total recorded in 1972 and even below the number of units shipped in 1976, the first year of the industry's recovery. After a 23 percent increase in 1983, unit shipments rose to 295,000, and topped 300,000 by the following year. Revenues during this period eclipsed the record year of 1972, peaking at $4.78 billion in 1983, and then dwindled to slightly more than $4 billion a year for the rest of the decade.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, mobile homes were the fastest-growing type of housing during the 1980s, a distinction earned primarily from robust sales in the first half of the decade. The late 1980s were marked by recessive conditions once again, causing unit shipments to decline, but mobile home manufacturers avoided significant losses as mobile homes continued to be the only housing alternative for many consumers.

In the 1990s, the once-threatened industry was finding its new direction. Manufacturers were negatively affected, though, by zoning codes that restricted where owners could locate their mobile home for permanent residence. However, by 1992, 22 states had outlawed "anti-mobile home" zoning restrictions, declaring them discriminatory. In the mid-1990s, there were 7.3 million manufactured homes in America, housing 18 million people, or about 7 percent of the nation's population. By the late 1990s, some 10 percent of the population lived in mobile homes. More than half of the owner-occupied homes were on rented land (in manufactured housing parks).

The $32 billion industry declined after its peak in unit shipments was reached in the 1970s, but it made a resurgence in the last half of 1990s. In 1999 there were only 88 manufactured home corporations, compared to 261 companies in 1982. However, those manufacturers were approaching the 400,000 mark in shipments exceeded in the 1970s. Unit shipments increased 7 percent between 1995 and 1996 and 5 percent between 1997 and 1998. In 1998, manufacturers shipped a total of 372,843 homes, nearly double the 197,000 units were shipped in 1992. Large multisection homes, some of which had three bedrooms, accounted for 15 percent of shipments in the early 1970s. For January through August 1999, they accounted for 64 percent of industry shipments, compared to just over 60 percent through August 1998.

Nevertheless, the industry showed signs of slowing. In 1998 the U.S. Census Bureau reported that 22.7 percent of single-family housing starts and 29.6 percent of new single-family homes sold were manufactured homes. These figures were down slightly from 23.8 percent and 30.5 percent, respectively, in 1997. Unit shipments for January through August 1999 decreased 1.4 percent from the same period in 1998, mainly due to excess inventory.

The industry had been able to come back in the mid- to late 1990s because it had virtually redefined its product. The old image of trailer parks, with flat-roofed metal-walled mobile homes, was replaced with an image of manufactured homes. Like the old mobile homes, a manufactured home is made in a factory and comes on its own chassis, with wheels that are removed after it arrives at its destination. Nevertheless, as Carlos Tejada reported in the Wall Street Journal, "Today's multisection manufactured home takes pains to hide those origins, with wood exteriors, wood-framed windows, porches, and shingled, peaked roofs." Many manufactured homes are indistinguishable from site-built homes. The industry has gone upscale in its pricing as well. Mobile homes sold for less than $10,000 in the 1970s and 1980s, but in 1997 a single-section manufactured home sold for an average of $29,000 and a multisection home sold for an average of $49,500. Indeed, even the name "mobile home" is something of a misnomer, because more than 90 percent of manufactured homes are never moved from their original site. In fact, the term "mobile home" only applies to manufactured housing units built before the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) passed quality-assurance standards for this type of factory-built home in 1976.

Economics and demographics have played a part in the growth of manufactured housing. Manufactured homes typically cost just 20 to 50 percent of what traditional site-built homes do. This price advantage helped attract first-time buyers, as well as retirees and "empty-nesters," who viewed the homes as an attractive option, either for a vacation home or as a year-round residence. The availability of financing for manufactured homes, including long-loan terms, helped buyers. According to the Manufactured Housing Institute, other trends that contributed to industry growth included increased service-sector job creation in the Southeast and Southwest, improved construction quality and appearance, a population shift toward suburban and rural areas, and an increased ability to site homes in subdivisions. For all of these reasons, the surviving manufacturers enjoyed solid financial performances in the late 1990s. According to the Manufactured Housing Institute, shipments of manufactured homes reached 372,843 units in 1998.

Due to the high costs associated with shipping mobile homes, manufacturing plants are generally located close to the market. Consequently, the industry's facilities dot the nation's landscape, with each manufacturing plant committed to its surrounding market. The top five shipment states are Texas, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina.

According to the Manufactured Housing Institute, "an average of 90 percent of manufactured home buyers would either recommend a manufactured home to their friends and family or would themselves buy another manufactured home." Despite this endorsement by homeowners, the industry's future growth need to eliminate some of the stigmas that continue to be associated with mobile homes by potential customers and, more importantly, in the perceptions held by society. These stigmas include the perception that manufactured housing brings down the value of nearby site-built houses and that manufactured houses are of poor quality and are less safe than traditional houses.

Although the avoidance of these stigmas may prove impossible, some headway was made through legislation that opened up more areas to placement of manufactured houses. Additionally, in 1999 the industry was involved in three initiatives to address the other issues. First, the industry supported federal legislation to update the Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (HUD code) governing building technologies and safety features. Second, because "improper installation is thought to cause many of the problems and defects that are reported in manufactured homes," the industry was working with "states to pass laws that would require installation standards, training and licensing of installers and inspections." It also was developing installation systems. Third, the industry was working with several federal agencies "to improve manufactured home safety in natural disasters." Progress achieved in these initiatives provided additional business to mobile home manufacturers in the twenty-first century.

As the result of such growth, however, the industry began to run into problems in late 1999. Shipments of manufactured homes dropped 28 percent in 2000 to 250,550 and had a 41 percent decrease in the first quarter of 2001 from the same period the previous year. With lenders offering easy credit terms, some of which had no money down and payment spread over a 20- to 30-year period, some unqualified buyers were suddenly faced with repossession. There were 75,000 in 2000 and all those mobile homes were back on the market at greatly reduced prices. The glut of these used mobile homes came on the market when manufacturers already had an excess of new mobile home inventory of up to 166,000 homes from lenders eager to finance new homes in the booming industry. Together, these factors caused dealers to go out of business and manufacturers to lose money, close factories, and lay off workers.

After hard times during the early part of the twenty-first century, the manufactured housing industry began an upswing in 2002. Approximately 175,000 manufactured homes were sold in 2004, 25 percent more than in 2003, at prices ranging from $20,000 to well over $200,000. The reasons for the growth included the improved quality and designs of manufactured homes. These mobile homes were being built to resemble site-built homes, and the more attractive designs prompted many communities that once banned the structures to relax restrictions. Some of the designs incorporated features like a two-story structure, skylights, fireplaces, and even attached garages.

The choices in floor plans and amenities were attractive to new buyers, and mortgage brokers were no longer quite so wary of the mobile home industry, which opened it for growth. In Florida, for example, manufactured homes in some areas were selling for double the original purchase price after only two years, and were still priced 20 percent lower than similar traditional houses in other areas. The state with the largest percentage of mobile homes was South Carolina, claiming nearly one-fifth, or 19 percent, of the state's housing units. In 2003 Texas sold more manufactured homes than any other state with 11,700 units, followed by Florida with 11,000. North Carolina came in third.

Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast states in August 2005, displacing thousands of families in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) purchased about 144,000 trailers and mobile homes to serve as temporary residences for the homeless families and government officials tending to the devastation. The housing situation worsened when one month later Hurricane Rita ravaged the same region.

In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, criticism of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was widespread and included its provision of temporary housing for the victims of the 2005 storm. The U.S. government spent $2.6 billion on trailers and mobile homes, many of which were never used. One year after the storm, some 10,000 unused mobile homes sat in Hope, Arkansas, unoccupied because FEMA's own regulations prohibited their installation in recognized flood zones. By that time, many displaced residents had relocated or secured permanent housing, rendering the remaining mobile homes unnecessary. This temporary housing became what the Grand Rapids Press referred to as "an unprecedented glut of government surplus."

Critics asserted that FEMA committed at least two momentous errors in purchasing the mobile homes. First, they claimed FEMA purchased far too many homes, and second, FEMA should have opted instead for travel trailers, which are cheaper, more portable, and can be placed in flood zones. Regardless, by 2007 FEMA was auctioning off its oversupply of trailers and mobile homes, which was good news for the taxpayers who ultimately paid for the houses but caused depressed demand and lower prices for retailers and manufacturers.

Current Conditions

Figures released by the U.S. Manufactured Housing Institute showed that 81,907 mobile homes were shipped in 2008; 37 percent were singlewides and 62 percent were doublewides and larger. Shipments were down from 95,769 in 2007 and 146,744 in 2005. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by 2008 the national average price of a doublewide mobile home was $76,100; singlewides sold for around $38,100. The average square footage of doublewides was 1,775 and of singlewides, 1,105.

According to Dun and Bradstreet's 2009 Industry Reports, 955 establishments employed 33,764 people in the mobile homes industry in the late 2000s. Total annual sales reached $6.9 billion in 2008. Tennessee (home of Clayton Homes) accounted for 55 percent of the nation's sales. Champion Enterprises' home state of Michigan was second with 15 percent, and Indiana, where Skyline Corp. was located, was in third place with 8 percent. Rounding out the top five states in mobile home sales were Alabama and Texas.

Like many homeowners, owners of mobile homes were negatively affected by the subprime mortgage and credit crisis of the mid- to late 2000s. According to The Real Deal, consumer loan delinquencies hit a record high in the first quarter of 2009, and among home equity, home improvement, personal, and mobile home loans, mobile homes had the highest delinquency rate. At that time, 3.7 percent of mobile home owners who had borrowed money to buy their home were at least 30 days behind on their mortgage payment.

Industry Leaders

The top-selling manufactured home company in the United States in the late 2000s was Champion Enterprises Co., based in Troy, Michigan. Champion posted sales of $1.0 billion in 2008 with 4,100 employees and sold about 11,000 homes annually. Its homes sold for between $25,000 and more than $200,000 and ranged in size from 400 to 4,000 square feet. Trade names included Redman, Moduline, Summit Crest, Titan, and Commander. Another industry leader was Addison, Texas-based Pearl Harbor Homes Inc., with 2008 sales of $409.3 million and 2,900 employees. As a subsidiary of CountryPlace Mortgage, Pearl Harbor sold 3,900 homes in 2009, down from 7,900 in 2005. The average price of its homes was $73,000.

Clayton Homes of Maryville, Tennessee, increased its market share in 2004 when it purchased Oakwood Homes and again in 2009 when it bought Cavalier Homes. Clayton's homes ranged in price from $20,000 to $130,000 and in size from 700 square feet to 3,000 square feet. Brands included Fleetwood, LUV, Oakwood, and Karston. As a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc., Clayton Homes reported revenues of $3.2 billion and had 14,000 employees in 2008.

Other industry leaders included Skyline Corp. in Elkhart, Indiana, with 2009 sales of $166.7 million and 1,300 employees, and Cavco Industries of Phoenix, Arizona, with 2008 sales of $105.4 million and 660 employees. Former industry leader Fleetwood Enterprises Inc. of Riverside, California, had 2008 sales of $1.6 billion and 6,400 employees but filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 2009 and was searching for buyers for its various assets, including its manufactured housing division.

© COPYRIGHT 2018 The Gale Group, Inc. This material is published under license from the publisher through the Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan. All inquiries regarding rights should be directed to the Gale Group. For permission to reuse this article, contact the Copyright Clearance Center.

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