Hardware Stores

SIC 5251

Industry report:

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in the retail sale of a number of basic hardware lines, such as tools, builders' hardware, paint, glass, cutlery, housewares, and household appliances. Establishments primarily engaged in the sale of lumber and other building materials are classified in SIC 5211: Lumber & Other Building Materials. Those establishments are included in this industry analysis because of their dominant role in the hardware industry. Establishments that specialize in a particular line of hardware, such as paint or wallpaper stores, were classified in SIC 5231: Paint, Glass & Wallpaper Stores.

Industry Snapshot

Since the introduction of the big box, do-it-yourself (DIY) stores, such as Lowe's and The Home Depot, the landscape of the American hardware store has changed. Although independently operated hardware stores and pure hardware chains continue to find a healthy niche, the big DIY stores dominated revenues in the early twenty-first century. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, revenues from retail hardware stores grew steadily from $16.2 billion in 2000 to $20.6 billion in 2007. D&B Marketing Solutions reported revenue in 2008 for the industry declined slightly to $19.7 billion. By the start of the 2010s, sales in the industry had rebounded to approximately $21 billion.

Hardware remained a relatively stable business sector in the latter part of the first decade of the 2000s, although it was not unaffected by the economic recession and sharp slowdown in housing starts toward the end of the decade. The large DIY franchises responded by slowing expansion and closing some unproductive locations. Also, the industry underwent some contraction as some retailers closed their doors for good. As of 2009, there were 15,734 hardware stores in the United States, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. While a recovery in the economy boded well for the industry in 2010, as the housing and construction markets slowly came back to life, hardware stores continued to face fierce competition from the relatively new, supersized home improvement stores.

Organization and Structure

Most of the U.S. retail hardware stores are independent businesses. However, nearly all of them are affiliated with a nationwide wholesaler that offers private label brands, retail store advertising, and identification programs. Such affiliations create the appearance of a structured industry. Many of these wholesalers are actually cooperatives owned by independent hardware store owners, forming a distribution system that originated in the early twentieth century. Dealer-owned wholesalers sell only to member stores, but member stores can buy merchandise from other wholesalers or directly from manufacturers.

The largest dealer-owned cooperative in the early 2010s was Ace Hardware Corporation, based in Oak Brook, Illinois, with 4,400 stores in the United States and abroad in 2011 and revenues of $3.5 billion. Much of Ace Hardware's success in the midst of stiff competition has been due to its very successful and long-running advertising campaign featuring former football coach and commentator, John Madden. Do It Best, located in Fort Wayne, Indiana, was the second largest co-op, with $2.3 billion in 2011 revenues. Do It Best operated 4,100 retail locations in 50 countries, although most stores were located in the United States.

True Value manufactures and distributes products to member owner stores under the retail trade names of True Value Hardware, V&S Variety Stores, and Coast to Coast Hardware. Based in Chicago, True Value was formed in 1997 by a merger between Cotter & Company (True Value's original supplier) and ServiStar , the original supplier to Coast to Coast Stores. Together they created a $4.3 billion company that served more than 10,000 retail outlets and instantly became the largest cooperative in the nation. However, as the co-op struggled to keep up with the big box stores, its numbers fell off, and it dropped from its top spot. The company held on to just 5,000 retail outlets in 2011 and annual revenues fell to $1.8 billion.

Most retail hardware stores have about 8,500 square feet of selling space. The National Retail Hardware Association (NRHA) categorizes larger formats as home centers. Home centers average more than 14,000 square feet of selling space and usually combine lumber with a greater selection of hardware products to create a one-stop shopping environment for home repair and home improvement projects. Home centers typically buy directly from the manufacturers and often sell to commercial accounts as well as individual consumers.

The home center segment also includes large warehouse-style hardware stores that average nearly 100,000 square feet and have between $12 million and $15 million in annual sales. Warehouse stores began to appear in the late 1970s and have had a notable impact on the retail hardware industry.

Warehouse stores are able to negotiate greater discounts from wholesalers and manufacturers because of their size. Warehouse stores also base their retail business on generating a high volume of sales, rather than by pursuing high profit margins. This forces small, independent hardware stores and chains, which have traditionally operated on high margins, to lower their prices, become more efficient, redesign their stores, improve customer service, and bypass their wholesalers to get a better price directly from manufacturers. This new operating style caused numerous wholesalers and retailers to go out of business. The largest players among these warehouse stores in the early 2010s were The Home Depot and Lowe's.

Background and Development

Hardware stores were among the earliest retail establishments in colonial America, selling tools imported from England. The oldest hardware store in the country is Elwood Adams Hardware in Worcester, Massachusetts. Founded by Daniel Waldo and his son in 1782, it was still in business in 2007. The store was named for Elwood Adams, who purchased it in 1886. The first American manufacturer of hardware was probably John Ames, a blacksmith in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. He established a factory for making shovels in 1774. Ames's shovels became indispensable to American settlers.

The American Industrial Revolution of the early 1800s greatly increased the availability of manufactured goods and spurred the growth of general stores that stocked basic hardware. Peddlers selling hardware from the back of their wagons inundated rural areas. The industrial revolution also gave rise to factories that could supply more goods than nearby communities could use. This created the need for wholesalers and distribution networks. As the U.S. economic base shifted from agriculture to manufacturing in the last half of the nineteenth century, the hardware industry began to acquire distinct manufacturing, wholesaling, and retailing segments.

National Retail Hardware Association.
Many hardware stores established in the late 1800s survived for more than 100 years. These stores were basically small, family-owned businesses, and, like neighborhood grocers before the advent of supermarkets, hardware store owners knew their customers well and were important members of the local business community. Although they valued their independence, hardware store owners also recognized the need to organize. By 1900, there were 25 state hardware associations, created primarily to lobby against what retailers believed were unfair trade practices conducted by manufacturers, who sold directly to hardware store chains and mail order houses at a significant discount.

Delegates from nine of these state associations met in Chicago in 1900 to discuss their common concerns, and eventually groups from seven states formed the Interstate Retail Hardware Association. In 1901 the name was changed to the National Retail Hardware Dealers Association, which later dropped "Dealers" from its name. The NRHA campaigned for fair-trade laws to protect storeowners from unfair pricing. The association later offered members a broad range of management, marketing, and research services. Headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, the NRHA became a federation of 14 state and regional hardware associations in 1993, including the Canadian Retail Hardware Association. Five years later, the federation voted unanimously to amend its bylaws so that NRHA could accept direct retail members from all 50 United States.

Wholesale Cooperatives.
In addition to seeking legislative relief from what they perceived as unfair pricing policies, hardware store owners also began forming wholesale cooperatives to increase their leverage with manufacturers. One of the first cooperatives was the American Hardware Supply Company (AHSC), which was founded by retailers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1910. AHSC, the forerunner of ServiStar Corp., eventually shipped hardware to retailers throughout most of the eastern United States.

One of the most successful U.S. cooperatives was the Ace Hardware Corporation, founded in 1924 by four Chicago retailers. The four retailers had been members of an innovative promotional program created by the E. C. Simmons Hardware Co., a St. Louis distributor providing advertising, window displays, and other store identification materials. In addition to buying directly from manufacturers on behalf of its members at volume discounts, Ace Hardware revived the Simmons promotional program. For 50 years, Ace Hardware was run by Richard Hesse, a flamboyant marketer and hardware industry legend who strove to create emotional as well as economic bonds between members of the cooperative. By the early 2010s Ace Hardware was the second largest hardware wholesaler with 4,400 stores and annual sales of $3.5 billion.

Coast to Coast Stores was formed in 1928 but was not a dealer-owned cooperative. Coast to Coast was initially a wholesaler as well as a franchiser. The Minneapolis-based company assisted storeowners in arranging financing, selecting store locations, and understanding the retail hardware business. In 1990 Coast to Coast was purchased by ServiStar, the Pennsylvania-based wholesale cooperative founded in 1910. At the time of the sale, Coast to Coast had about 1,100 franchisees and annual sales of $400 million. Our Own Hardware Co. was another well-known cooperative. Founded in 1913, it was originally known as the Hall Hardware Company. By 1992 Our Own Hardware Co. had about 1,000 members and sales of $185 million. The company merged with ServiStar in 1996 to form ServiStar Coast to Coast Corporation. A year later, ServiStar merged with Cotter & Company, the wholesale cooperative behind the True Value chain. Together they created a $4.3 billion company with more than 10,000 retail members.

Home Centers.
The post-World War II boom economy led to a tremendous expansion of the retail hardware business. Homeowners began buying more tools, housewares, plumbing, electrical supplies, paint, building materials, and other staples of the hardware business. The DIY market was beginning to take shape. The post-war economy also gave rise to competition in the form of large chain hardware stores known as home centers. These chains were led by Lowe's Companies Inc.; Payless Cashways Inc.; and Builders Square Inc., originally known as Home Pro.

Warehouse Stores.
In 1979, a start-up company, The Home Depot Inc., opened two warehouse centers in Atlanta, Georgia, sparking dramatic changes in the retail hardware industry. Home Depot's stores were greatly expanded home centers. Each store featured 60,000 square feet of space, an informal atmosphere, and low prices. Beginning with a severely limited budget, Home Depot's top shelves were often stocked with empty boxes to avoid an empty feeling in the cavernous stores. Nonetheless, the concept was an overwhelming marketing success. By 1983 Home Depot was operating 10 stores in Atlanta and southern Florida. Each store averaged 60,000 square feet in size and nearly $12 million in annual sales.

Competitors soon copied Home Depot's warehouse format. In 1983, W. R. Grace & Co. opened two House Works stores in New Orleans. Within weeks, Home Depot also opened two stores in the Crescent City. This was followed by two more House Works stores. Within 90 days, six warehouse hardware stores opened in New Orleans with a combined 400,000 square feet of space. Warehouse stores soon opened in other areas of the country in a confusing flood of similar-sounding names, including HomeOwners Warehouse in Florida, Home-Pro Warehouse in Texas, and HomeClub in southern California. By the end of 1983, 11 companies had opened 47 warehouse hardware stores.

However, Home Depot was not outdone by the competition. In 1999 the Atlanta-based home improvement giant reported annual sales of $30.2 billion. With 874 stores in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and Chile, Home Depot was by far the largest hardware retailer in the world. According to company executives, during the late 1990s, Home Depot was opening a store every 53 hours. By 2011, annual sales were almost $68 billion with more than 2,250 stores nationwide.

In the course of this industry-wide expansion, many independent hardware stores were driven out of business. Hardware store failures were attributed largely to the success of suburban malls and discount stores such as Kmart and Wal-Mart. For example, Wal-Mart and its growing hardware sales expanded from about 30 stores in 1970 to more than 6,700 stores worldwide in 2007. Most of these stores were typically located near small communities.

The malls and discount retailers changed shopping patterns throughout the United States. Hardware stores moved away from downtown areas in big cities and small towns where people no longer came to shop. Warehouse stores, on the other hand, actually expanded the hardware market. By one industry estimate, when the first Home Depot store opened in 1979, the DIY market was reporting earnings of about $35 billion annually. Ten years later, the market was estimated to be worth nearly $90 billion. Many retail hardware stores were able to capitalize on the expanding market by becoming more efficient and offering more personal service.

Wholesale cooperatives helped their members deal with increased competition. Cotter & Company was credited with creating innovative store identification programs to counter the advertising campaigns and name recognition of the home centers. These programs included national advertising in consumer magazines and cost-efficient, mass-produced circulars for member stores. Many such programs were copied by other cooperatives.

The chain-owned home centers may have been more adversely affected by the warehouse stores than were independent hardware stores. Initially, home centers competed based on price, but competition from warehouse stores forced home centers to add services, such as installation services, and hire more qualified employees. Home Depot was an industry leader in customer innovations such as how-to clinics, bar code standards, employee training programs, and satellite communications between the chain's mainframe computer in Atlanta and point-of-sale computers in its stores nationwide.

A 2005 NRHA report showed that the typical hardware store had sales of $143,358 per employee annually, while the high-profit stores (the top 25 percent of all hardware stores) sold $208,567 per employee annually. Average hardware stores sold $1.29 million annually, while high-profit stores sold $1.59 million a year. Gross profit margin was 39.9 percent for typical hardware stores, although the margin for high-profit stores had shrunk to 28.2 percent. Accordingly, although the industry as a whole was growing at about 5.7 percent each year, a noticeable gulf between the high-profit hardware stores and the average store continued to exist.

As the new millennium approached, most retail hardware stores were still family-owned businesses, with many family histories extending back four or five generations. In the majority of these stores, sons and daughters worked alongside their parents. Nevertheless, many of the present owners did not expect to pass their stores on to the next generation. Those who expected to someday sell their stores to outsiders cited hard work, long hours, an uncertain future, and the lower-class image of hardware store owners as contributing factors to the decreasing appeal of hardware store ownership. Long-time employees often purchased hardware stores sold outside the family. In this regard, many hardware stores established employee stock ownership programs that made it easier for employees to assume ownership.

Storeowners are also more likely to cite competition from discount retailers like Kmart and Wal-Mart as the most serious threat to their businesses. Financially, the strongest independent hardware stores are those that have staked out a variety of niche markets, such as kitchen remodeling centers and lawn and garden centers. Some wholesale cooperatives, including Our Own Hardware, which merged with Hardware Wholesalers in 1997, began helping members establish tool rental departments. At the same time, many storeowners were reluctant to make radical changes in their businesses and made no plans to change their product mix. Other owners became interested in bypassing traditional distribution channels to buy directly from the manufacturers.

Although no other warehouse hardware companies came close to duplicating the success of Home Depot, warehouse stores continued expanding throughout the 1990s. Lowe's Companies Inc., which began experimenting with large stores in 1984, made a corporate decision in 1988 to hold the line at about 60,000 square feet. In the early 1990s, however, the company decided to build larger stores, and by the mid-1990s more than half of its stores were larger than 60,000 square feet. Lowe's experimentation paid off. In the late years of the first decade of the 2000s, it was solidly positioned as the second largest home-improvement store in the United States (behind Home Depot).

Another leading company with major expansion plans in the early 1990s was the Hechinger Company. Based in Largo, Maryland, Hechinger operated a chain of traditional hardware stores. In 1988 Hechinger purchased Home Quarters Warehouse Inc., and in 1991 the company opened its first warehouse-size Home Project Center. By the mid-1990s, Hechinger had become the fourth largest home improvement retailer in the nation. However, the company fell on hard times in 1997. Two years later, it filed for bankruptcy protection from its creditors. Although it tried to reorganize, it failed to regain its position in the marketplace and liquidated all its stores. Home Decor Products purchased the Hechinger name and opened an online store, which subsequently closed in 2009.

Legislation.
Among other issues of concern to the retail hardware industry during the late twentieth century was the question of product liability. Increasingly, courts were holding retail stores liable for damages caused by defective products. Several courts had ruled that hardware stores had an obligation to ensure the safety of their products and held them liable for money damages when they failed to fulfill this obligation. For two decades, Congress conducted hearings to determine if they should enact federal laws to insulate hardware store retailers from product liability lawsuits. No bill ever passed, despite several pieces of proposed legislation, so hardware stores continued to insure themselves against the risk of liability.

Despite a weakened economic climate preceding the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001 that grew worse in the following months, home channel market sales managed to increase 6 percent in 2001. Home channel sales were $343.1 billion, including sales from hardware stores, home centers and other building material dealers, lawn and garden equipment and supply stores, department stores, paint and wallpaper stores, and other general merchandise stores. Hardware stores made up $16.5 billion, or 4.8 percent of home channel market sales.

According to the NRHA, the DIY market increased at a compound annual rate of 6 percent from 1995 to 2000. The trend toward staying home, or "cocooning," after September 11, 2001 was another factor that drove home sales. As travel declined, Americans had more to spend on home renovations. Cable television started a home renovation and design programming trend that became popular with viewers and further encouraged sales in the home sector. The good news for home sales continued with ongoing low interest rates in 2002 and 2003, and a stable, sometimes strong, housing market. The demand for new housing was also on the rise, with an estimated demand at 1.8 million units per year, compared with 1.6 million housing units per year during the previous decade.

Although many sectors of the economy suffered, hardware managed to thrive in the early years of the first decade of the 2000s due to a number of factors. The increasing trend toward DIY projects was one of the chief reasons hardware stores were continuing to be successful. People purchased tools and other hardware and household items at a record pace. As the economy stabilized and climbed upward in the middle years of the decade, hardware stores kept their foothold. For example, by 2004, hardware stores had regained their market share for the sale of hand tools. However, the housing market began a slowdown in 2005, and by mid-2007, retailers felt the same pinch that many homeowners did due to rising interest rates and a sluggish economy. According to the National Retail Hardware Association (NRHA), sales by hardware stores, home centers, and lumberyards amounted to $272.1 billion, while the number of stores for that period was 41,600.

A noticeable trend among hardware stores in the first decade of the 2000s was the bid to attract more female customers. According to the National Association of Realtors, single women are the second largest group of homebuyers after couples. They influence a large number of home improvement purchases, and are increasingly involved in DIY projects. Leading the way toward increasing appeal to women buyers were Lowe's, the first to incorporate a home decor department in the mid-1980s, Home Depot, and Sears. Traditional hardware stores, including Ace Hardware, followed suit. In addition to female-friendly marketing and advertising, more and more decor programs were cropping up alongside new store designs and display programs geared toward the decorating set.

The sudden and violent drop of the new housing market in late 2007 shocked the U.S. economy, which directly impacted the hardware and home improvement sector. The ensuing recession resulted in a 16 percent decline in housing turnover, an 18 percent decline in overall housing prices (with the drop much more severe in some areas), and an unemployment rate that rose from 4.9 percent in January 2008 to 8.1 percent in February 2009. The result was a population of consumers that were much less apt to invest in big remodeling or home improvement projects. In response, both Lowe's and Home Depot cut back on expansion in 2008. Home Depot reduced the number of new openings by 50, and Lowe's opened 115 new stores in 2008, down from 153 in 2007, and planned less than half that in 2009. Lowe's also began to implement a plan to increasingly build its smaller, 103,000-square-foot store format in more locations, rather than its traditionally larger 117,000-square-foot plan.

Home Depot's gross profits declined nearly 8 percent between 2007 and 2008. In the company's analysis of the year, the annual report showed that both the number of customer transactions and the average amount each customer spent during a trip to the store were lower in 2008 than in 2007 and 2006. Net sales decreased from $77.3 billion in 2007 to $71.3 billion in 2008. Home Depot attributed the decline to the economy, especially soft sales in big-ticket items, as consumers were apprehensive to use credit or invest in major remodeling or repairs during economic uncertainty.

For its part, Lowe's managed to stay level between 2007 and 2008, posting revenues of $48.28 billion and $48.23 billion, respectively. Lowe's attributed its position to strong cost-cutting measures and a focus on mid-range sales as, like Home Depot, the company experienced a more significant drop in big-ticket item sales.

Despite the tough economic times, many hardware retailers held the line by selling to DIYers who were now taking on home repairs themselves rather than calling in more expensive contractors to do the work. In an October 2008 report by Hardware Retailing, even though housing prices remained at record lows, retailers were not experiencing huge declines in business: "Retailers are ... noticing a shift in the type of products that are selling. Steady increases in fixer-up products indicate an emphasis on home repairs instead of complete remodels or start-ups."

Current Conditions

According to Hoover's, the hardware store segment of the industry remained highly fragmented into the early 2010s, with the top 50 companies accounting for about 30 percent of industry revenues. The home center segment, on the other hand, was highly concentrated, with the top four companies accounting for more than 90 percent of revenues. Overall, 52 percent of product revenues came from the sale of hardware, such as tools and equipment, plumbing fixtures, wiring and electrical supplies, and so on.

Hardware stores continued to compete with the larger home improvement centers, and, according to some retailers, as reported by market research firm IBISWorld, "the lawn and garden department remains one of the industry's keys to success." Between 2005 and 2010, that segment's contribution to total industry revenues rose to 14 percent. In addition, according to the IBISWorld report, "Increased sales floor space and substantial increases in gross margins assisted sales growth."

By 2012 it appeared hardware stores had begun to recover from the economic slowdown. Sales for both hardware stores and home centers showed increases in every month of the last quarter of 2011 as compared to 2010. For example, hardware store sales totaled $1.73 billion in October 2011 as compared to $1.56 billion in October 2010.

Industry Leaders

Atlanta-based Home Depot is the largest hardware retailer in the United States, the largest home improvement chain, and the second largest retailer behind Wal-Mart. It had approximately 2,200 stores worldwide and reported $67.9 billion in sales in fiscal 2011, down from $90.8 billion in fiscal 2007. It is credited with driving the retail hardware industry to adopt new technologies, including the use of bar codes for maintaining inventory. In the late 1990s, Home Depot began to roll out a line of large-format stores called EXPO, which featured 80,000 to 100,000 square feet of space focused on interior design materials rather than the lumber and construction offerings of its flagship chain. In 2002 Home Depot unveiled a new prototype store in Brooklyn, New York that was half the size of a regular Home Depot. The stores were designed for crowded urban areas and were neighborhood-friendly, offering a targeted mix of products and services. In 2007, Home Depot continued to test new smaller store options with the launching of three new Yardbirds-format stores in California's San Francisco Bay area. The smaller format, which ranged from 34,000 to 56,000 square feet, featured merchandise that was specifically targeted to surrounding neighborhood buyers in addition to a more limited variety than typical Home Depot stores. However, as sales plummeted in the late years of the decade, Home Depot, in an attempt to appease angry stockholders, decided to close all its non-core interests, including Yardbirds, EXPO, and THD Design Centers.

North Carolina-based Lowe's Companies Inc. is the second leading hardware retailer in the country, reporting more than $48.8 billion a year in 2011 sales from 1,700 stores. Other leaders were two cooperatives. Ace Hardware Corporation of Oak Brook, Illinois, was the larger, with 4,440 U.S. stores. The company reported 2011 sales of nearly $3.5 billion. Do It Best Corp., of Fort Wayne, Indiana, the second-largest cooperative, had 4,000 member-owned stores and sales of $2.3 billion in fiscal 2011.

Workforce

In the late years of the first decade of the 2000s, retail hardware stores reported approximately 160,000 employees, with the average hardware store having 12 full- or part-time employees. The home centers employed nearly 575,000 workers. Entry-level workers are usually paid at or near the minimum wage. Smaller hardware stores with a lower profit margin commonly complain about the difficulties in finding and retaining a competent staff. The problem is especially critical in small towns. Home centers typically hire away experienced employees at higher wages. They also offer employee training programs and more opportunity for advancement. Home Depot is a leader in hiring employees with a construction or building industry background to improve service. Wholesale cooperatives have attempted to help their members by instituting employee-training programs.

America and the World

Ace Hardware outpaced Home Depot and Lowe's in its international expansion efforts, operating in over 60 countries worldwide and opening 25 new stores outside U.S. borders in 2008 alone. To service this broad network, Ace's global distribution network operates 16 warehouses in the United States and one in China, three freight-forwarding operations, and freight consolidation and distribution facilities around the globe. Ace focused on underserved markets, where the hardware sector had yet to become fully established and where there was an emerging middle class. New Ace Hardware stores were either opened or targeted for openings in such countries as Lebanon, Libya, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

At the end of 2008, Home Depot's international operations consisted of 176 stores in Canada, 74 in Mexico, and 12 in China. Lowe's had yet to venture too far into the international marketplace, operating just 11 stores, all in Canada, outside U.S. borders.

© COPYRIGHT 2018 The Gale Group, Inc. This material is published under license from the publisher through the Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan. All inquiries regarding rights should be directed to the Gale Group. For permission to reuse this article, contact the Copyright Clearance Center.

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