Wines, Brandy, and Brandy Spirits

SIC 2084

Companies in this industry

Industry report:

This category includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wines, brandy, and brandy spirits. This industry also includes bonded wine cellars that are engaged in blending wines. Establishments that primarily bottle purchased wines, brandy, and brandy spirits but do not manufacture wines and brandy are classified in SIC 5182: Wine and Distilled Alcoholic Beverages.

Industry Snapshot

Wine making was a thriving business in the early part of the twenty-first century, with a retail value of $28.7 billion in 2009. According to Wine Institute, the number of wineries in the United States increased from 2,904 in 2000 to 6,705 in 2009. Wine shipments also increased in the 2000s, from 568 million gallons in 2000 to 767 million gallons in 2009. About 88 percent of shipments were of table wine, with dessert wine (8 percent) and sparkling wine/champagne (4 percent) making up the remainder. Red wine was the most popular color, with 47 percent of the market share (partly because of reports of health benefits), followed by white with 40 percent and blush with 13 percent. Although the first commercial wine venture in the United States was in Pennsylvania, the majority of modern American wineries have been located in California, with fellow Pacific coastal states Washington and Oregon coming in a distant second and third, respectively.

Organization and Structure

All winemakers must sell their products through wholesalers and retailers to accommodate various federal, state, and local regulations regarding the sale of alcoholic beverages. The Federal Alcohol Administration Act (FAA) was established after the 13-year Prohibition Era ended in 1933. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) is responsible for administering and enforcing the FAA, including qualifying winemakers, collecting producer and wholesaler occupational taxes, and regulating trade practices, advertising, and labeling. Beyond the uniformity of the FAA, regulations vary greatly among the 50 states.

States can sell wine in one of two ways, either in a controlled environment or using an open, licensed method. "Open" states have licensed retailers and wholesalers that handle the distribution and sale of alcoholic beverages. Thirty-two states and the District of Columbia are open states. The other 18 states operate under the control method, in which each state government buys and sells alcoholic beverages at the wholesale and retail levels. In addition to federal regulations, some states have set up their own independent agencies that are responsible for the administration, licensing, and enforcement of state laws and the collection of state revenues. Some state legislatures even have created their own alcoholic beverage control (ABC) agencies with rule-making power, and 32 states allow their citizens to vote for or against the sale of liquor on a city or county-wide basis.

Background and Development

California winemaking began in 1769 when Father Junipero Serra planted vines at Mission San Diego. In September 1772, the grapes were harvested and pressed, creating California's first vintage. These early wines were produced for sacramental purposes and personal consumption at the missions.

The commercial era of wine production began in 1830 with the efforts of Frenchman Jean Louis Vignes from Bordeaux, France. His vineyard was located in what is now downtown Los Angeles. The wine industry boomed as an ancillary result of the discovery of gold in California in 1848. A surge of Europeans came to the state seeking their fortune. Immigrants from Italy, France, and Germany who had no luck finding gold turned to a trade they already knew--winemaking.

Between 1860 and 1880, the industry grew rapidly as numerous wineries were established. By 1890, several of the state's famous wine regions already had taken shape and the industry was producing 25 million gallons of wine per year. After suffering losses from a vine pest called phylloxera, the industry virtually disappeared with the passage of Prohibition in 1919. The repeal of Prohibition in 1933, however, prompted the industry to rebuild. Growth was steady between 1949 and 1960, with annual output increasing from 117 million gallons to 129 million gallons. By the 1970s, the demand for California table wines had doubled.

As the industry evolved, so did consumer preferences. From 1933 to 1967, dessert wine was the most popular kind of wine in the United States. During the 1970s, generic table wines, like California Chablis and California Burgundy, dominated sales. By the late 1980s, varietal wines, those labeled with the name of the grape, had taken over.

After posting a 6.5 percent loss in 1993, wine sales in the United States continued to rise, while per capita consumption remained steady at 1.8 gallons. According to the San Francisco-based Wine Institute, consumer demand for premium varietal wines spurred a 5 percent increase in California table wine sales in 1994--the strongest performance in more than a decade. While most of the largest wine producers reported record sales, and consumer tastes moved upscale to more expensive wines, 1994 was noted as the best year for the wine industry since the late 1980s.

The improved economy and continuing news reports about the health benefits of moderate wine consumption fueled the continued growth of the industry. A 1991 broadcast of 60 Minutes reported a link between moderate wine consumption and a reduced risk of heart attack. Called the French Paradox, two scientists found that despite similar fat intake, France's heart attack rate was one-third that of the United States. A key factor they attributed to this was the French custom of drinking wine with meals. Red wine sales increased more than 75 percent after that 1991 report. When the U.S. government issued new dietary guidelines in 1996, it acknowledged, for the first time, the benefits of moderate wine consumption. Previously, the government had warned that even small amounts of alcohol had "no net health benefit."

Champagne sales continued to drop despite increases of specific brands. From a peak of 18.2 million 9-liter cases of sparkling wine and champagne in the United States in 1986, consumption fell to 12.3 million 9-liter cases in 1995. Causes for the decline were high prices for champagne, high taxes, high cost of shipping, and lack of consistent, high-profile marketing programs.

In the late 1990s, fruit-flavored varietal wines became popular. Canadaigua introduced Arbor Mist in 1998 in flavors such as peach and tropical fruits chardonnay and exotic fruits and sangria zinfandel. Other producers followed suit, including Sutter Home's Portico, Earnest & Julio Gallo's Wild Vines, and the Wine Group's Lyrica. The introduction of fruit-flavored varietals caused a minor uproar among wine purists in the industry. Because these wines contain less than 7 percent alcohol, they are regulated by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA), which does not issue designation requirements for varietals.

At the end of the twentieth century, U.S. producers of champagne and sparkling wine commanded a 70 percent share of the domestic market. Growth continued to be slow. In 1997, shipments of champagne rose 1 percent for the first time since the 1980s, but they fell by 3 percent the following year. These losses were attributed to consumers' abandonment of the less expensive charmat producers in favor of the higher-end method champenoise varieties.

The good news was that the quality of champagne, both domestic and imported, was rising. Those producing champagne began to make a product that was more suited to American tastes. Improvements in champagne production were forged mainly in Carneros, Mendocino County, California, as well as on the central coast. In return, these domestic producers saw consumers move to brands that offered high quality at affordable prices.

The sale of wine over the Internet in the early 2000s stirred a heated debate between the U.S. Congress and the wine industry. Spurred by a rash of student-led violence in the nation's schools, legislators created a bill on youth crime and gun control. An amendment to the bill gave states the power to use federal courts to enforce local laws governing the interstate alcohol trade. Proponents said that the amendment's purpose was to prevent underage drinking. Many in the wine industry believed that it restricted their business.

Production.
The making of wine begins with the grape harvest, which generally occurs from August through November, depending on the grape variety and the weather. The grapes are placed in a crusher that separates the stems from the fruit and breaks up the berries. The stems are then discarded, leaving a combination of juice, seeds, pulp, and skins, called "must." Juice from red or white wine grapes is colorless.

To make white wine, the skins and seeds usually are removed from the must after a few hours. The remaining juice is called "free-run." The discarded skins also are pressed to extract the "press juice." Both juices then are filtered, placed in storage, and given yeast to facilitate the fermentation process. White wine fermentation can last anywhere from three days to three weeks. Upon completion, the wine is filtered for solids or remaining yeast. The wine then is aged for a period of one week to a year in stainless steel, oak, or redwood containers. It also can be aged in the bottle. After aging, the wine can be blended with other wines to create a desired style or can be sent to be finished, a process that stabilizes and filters the wine before bottling.

Production of red wine is slightly different than the process of making white wine. Red wine is fermented at warmer temperatures than white wine. For red wine production, the skins are fermented with the crushed juice to give it color and flavor. The skins float to the top and are moistened regularly with juice to extract color and flavor. Red wine usually is fermented for five to ten days and then is filtered, clarified, and preserved with sulfites. Red wine commonly is aged in oak barrels for one to two years.

Champagne is made in one of two ways: by method champenoise or the charmat process. In the first, still wine is blended with a mixture (called triage) of still wine, yeast, and a sugar substance. This blend is resealed in bottles where it is fermented for a second time and aged. Carbon dioxide collects in the bottles, which is released in a rush of bubbles when the bottles are uncorked. In the charmat, or bulk, process, the still wine, yeast, and sugar are fermented in a pressurized tank rather than in bottles.

Types of Wines.
Wines sold in the United States generally are divided into the following categories: champagne, aperitif, dessert wine, table wine, and varietal wine. Also included in this discussion are brandy and other fortified wines. Wines can be named one of four ways: by variety, which tells the predominant type of grape; by a generic name describing the color, such as blush; by the region that originally inspired the wine, such as Chablis; or by a proprietary name, which is a label created by the winery.

Champagne and sparkling wines are names used interchangeably in the United States for wines with effervescence. These wines range from very dry (natural), to dry (brut), to slightly sweet (extra dry), to sweet (sec and demi-sec). Aperitifs are appetizer wines usually served prior to a meal and can include champagnes and sherries. Dessert wines are officially classified as those with an alcohol content of 17 percent to 21 percent. They can be sweet or dry and include sherries and ports.

Table wine is a term commonly used to describe all red, white, blush, and rose wines that contain 7 to 14 percent alcohol. These wines are still rather effervescent and are served mainly with meals. Table wines can be made from any grape or combination of grapes and in any style that the winemaker chooses. Varietal wines are table wines that are made from a minimum of 75 percent of a particular grape variety; they carry the name of the grape variety from which they are produced, such as chardonnay or merlot.

The red table wine category has been led by cabernet sauvignon, a full-bodied, rich, intense wine with noticeable tannins. A leading prestigious varietal, cabernet sauvignon has been one of the most widely available wines from California. Other red varietals include merlot, petite sirah, and zinfandel. Merlot is a medium- to full-bodied wine that originally was made for the sole purpose of blending with cabernet sauvignon. Petite sirah is a wine with deep color, full body, and a fresh-berry taste. Zinfandel, known as the classic California wine, is known too for its versatility, range of style, and raspberry-spicy aroma and flavor.

White table wines have been dominated by chardonnay, which is the most widely planted variety of grape in California. It is a dry wine that has a balance of fruit, acidity, and texture. Depending on what the winemaker uses for storage, chardonnay can range from clean and crisp wines to rich, complex, oak-aged wines.

Other white varietals include French columbard, sauvignon blanc, Johannisberg reisling, gewurztraminer, and pinot blanc. French columbard is generally fresh and fruity, ranging from light to medium in body. Sauvignon Blanc has been one of the fastest-growing varietals in California; sometimes called fume blanc, it is best known for its grassy, herbal flavors and is often consumed with fish and shellfish. Johannisberg riesling, from the German riesling grape, is aromatic, delicate, and slightly sweet. Late harvest rieslings are good accompaniments for dessert. Gewurztraminer offers spicy aromas and flavors and a slight wisp of residual sweetness and is often served with Asian food. Pinot blanc is a unique, dry white wine, with styles ranging from bold and oak-aged to crisp and medium-bodied.

Brandy is "burnt wine" or fruit wine that is boiled and aged in wood. Virtually any type of fruit can be used to make brandy, although grapes have been the most common. Brandy has been produced primarily in Spain, Italy, and France, and most recently in the United States. Cognac has been considered to be the best of all brandies. Cognac's discerning characteristic has been its blending, often created from a number of different cognacs coupled carefully to achieve an appropriate mixture.

Fortified wines were the creation of the Spanish and Portuguese and included port, sherry, and Madeira. Sherry is made by blending younger sherries with older sherries in oak casks. It varies in dryness levels and in hues. Harvey's Bristol Cream, imported by Hiram Walker & Sons, was the top-selling sherry in the United States in the late twentieth century, with a nearly 41 percent market share. The best-seller was a blend of aged oloroso, a fortified full-bodied sherry, and Pedro Ximines grapes, which sweetens the mixture.

Port is red wine fortified with grape brandy. It was created unintentionally in the seventeenth century when Portugal tried to ship its table wine to England. In order to stabilize the wine during its voyage across the Atlantic, the wine needed the addition of grape brandy. England has remained the most popular market for port.

Madeira comes from a tropical island of the same name and is a raisiny, sweet wine. Madeira has been closely linked with the history of the United States, according to the New York Times Magazine. It was considered to be the wine of choice for American Revolutionary notables such as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and Ben Franklin. Unlike other wines that soured during the long, hot voyage across the Atlantic, Madeira was the only wine known to improve dramatically with the introduction of heat.

After a time of record growth throughout the 1990s, U.S. winemakers began seeing wine sales flatten in the early 2000s. With a shaky economy made all the more so by the attacks of September 11, 2001, the wine industry, like many U.S. industries, was affected by the decrease in consumer spending on travel and recreation, which is tied to wine drinking. Another factor in the state of the wine industry in the early 2000s was the overproduction of grapes and the ensuing drop in grape prices by as much as 75 percent in 2001 and 2002. Wine prices dropped during this time while sales flattened. Retail sales of wine in the United States were $19.8 billion in 2001, a 4 percent increase over 2000's sales of $19.0 billion. By 2002, sales of California wine dropped in all categories for the first time in more than a decade. Finally, the proliferation of high quality, inexpensive imported wine caused further woes for U.S. winemakers. Imports rose 17 percent in 2002, accounting for 25 percent of total wine sales in the United States.

White wine continued to be popular, owning 40 percent of the wine market in 2001, with red not far behind, growing from 17 percent in 1991 to a strong 37 percent of market share in 2001. The MKF Wine Trends Report noted that the leading California table wine varietals, chardonnay, cabernet sauvignon, merlot, and white zinfandel/blush, accounted for about 76 percent of all retail sales by value of California wine in 2001. Chardonnay continued its leading spot with a 29 percent dollar market share, followed by cabernet with 19 percent, merlot with 15 percent, and white zinfandel/blush holding 13 percent of the market by value. Secondary red varietals, including syrah, pinot noir, and red zinfandel, all were up more than 30 percent in revenues for California wineries. There was a surge in popularity of pinot grigio, which the Wine Spectator reported had sales increasing faster that any other white wine in supermarkets. Wine coolers, once popular in the late 1990s, were less so as the new millennium dawned.

By the mid-2000s, the U.S. wine industry was picking up. California wineries shipped a record amount of products, with approximately 428 million gallons shipped domestically, out of a total 522 million gallons shipped worldwide. While so-called "extreme value" varieties continued to sell well, the expensive premium wines also were seeing increases, accounting for 64 percent of industry revenues. Following the trend across nearly all American retail industries, the middle variety sales were flat, with the majority of the industry growth occurring at either extreme end of the price spectrum. In 2004, sales of red outpaced white for the first time in years.

To ensure that California sustained its fertile winegrowing land, the Wine Institute and the California Association of Winegrape Growers launched the "Code of Sustainable Winegrowing Practices" in 2002, which in 2004 received a $475,000 USDA grant for support of sustainable winegrowing practices. The program for vintners and growers was a voluntary and helpful tool for conserving natural resources, protecting the environment, and enhancing relationships with neighbors, local communities, and employees.

A new trend in the mid-2000s was that of bringing winemaking to the masses with make-your-own wineries and classes springing up around the country. While the majority of these operations, which were not affiliated with any particular winery, allowed customers to simply choose grapes, add yeast, and design labels, some of the larger operations, such as the Bacchus School of Wine, were truly teaching the winemaking process in less than a year, starting students from the very beginning.

Other relevant trends included more vintners moving to plastic corks. Although considered "tacky" by some, more and more winemakers worldwide were seeing the benefits to the move, as costlier, traditional corks were increasingly blamed for ruining bottles with sediment, mustiness, or leakage. This negative cork performance costs vineyards money, because they absorb the cost of returned bottles. Other winemakers made a move to organics, such as Fetzer Vineyards, which announced that it intended to grow and use 100 percent organic grapes for all its wine.

While the sale of wines up to $7 were flat in 2006, California table wines priced $7 or more increased 10 percent by volume, according to the Gomberg Fredrikson Report. Moreover, U.S. stores broadened their selection, with more than 420 new wine brands introduced in grocery stores, according to the Nielsen Company. Meanwhile, shipments of sparkling wines and champagnes increased 7 percent to 35 million gallons.

In the mid-2000s, the wineries industry was affected by a 2005 U.S. Supreme Court decision striking down a ban on direct shipments to consumers from out-of-state suppliers. In Granholm v. Heald, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Michigan had violated the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution by allowing in-state wineries to ship directly to customers while banning out-of-state wineries from doing the same. The ruling affected the laws of more than two dozen states, but it did not specifically change any laws.

Current Conditions

In 2010, a proposed bill (HR-5034) that would reassert state control of alcohol marketing was threatening to allow states to enact shipping laws that favored in-state over out-of-state liquor producers. The Wine Institute strongly opposed the legislation, which it called an "ill-conceived effort to give wholesalers the ability to create and perpetuate an environment of discrimination and inequality." Other industry participants, including major wine industry associations, were also against the bill. As of July 2010, no decision on the bill had been made.

Like many food and beverage sectors of the U.S. manufacturing industry, wineries were increasingly producing more natural products as the second decade of the twenty-first century began. Organic wine, for example, experienced a surge in popularity. According to the Organic Trade Association, organic wine sales totaled $161 million in 2009, up 7.5 percent. However, making a wine that could be classified as organic was not an easy task. To be labeled organic, the wine had to meet strict U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards that allowed no pesticides or any added sulfites. Bill Nelson of WineAmerica told Cheers in 2010, "It's difficult to make organic wine. There are some people who make organic wines and don't add [additional] sulfites. But most mainstream wineries think it's too risky, as there is not an antimicrobial substitute that works as well." Many wine makers opted for wine made with "organically grown grapes." Regardless, demand for such products was expected to continue to grow. As stated by Heidi Hinkle of ARIA Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, "People are definitely supporting the organic movement. It's not a luxury anymore; it's a lifestyle change that people are willing to spend more money on if available."

The green movement also spread to the packaging aspect of wine, and wineries were looking for ways to bottle (or not) wine in formats that were more environmentally friendly. Examples were the bag-in-box format and innovative designs by Tetra Pak. Some wineries were experimenting with bottling in PET plastic. For example, wine maker Boisset America released Fog Mountain Merlot in PET plastic in 2009, which was the first California wine to be sold in that format. According to Wines & Vines, the bottle is 100 percent recyclable and requires 38 percent less energy to make as compared to glass bottles.

Industry Leaders

As dominant as the state of California is in the wine industry, so too are the seven wineries of California winemakers Ernest & Julio Gallo (E & J Gallo), which cultivates more than 15,000 acres in California. E & J Gallo Wineries had sales of $2.0 billion in 2009.

In 1933, the original Ernest and Julio Gallo brothers winery was founded in Modesto, California. Unable to obtain bank financing, the company bought crushing and fermenting equipment on 90-day terms and rented a warehouse to make its first commercial wine. Using pamphlets on winemaking from the local library and grapes bought on a promise to pay from eventual sales, the two brothers made their first batch of wine. By 1993, Gallo owned five separate vineyards totaling more than 2,000 acres. The company remained a private, family-owned business (two of Julio Gallo's great-grandchildren, Matt and Gina, are actively involved in the company's winemaking operations) and was one of the largest organic farms in the United States.

The company's success was due in part to the partnership of the Gallo brothers; Ernest marketed the wine that Julio made. Another part of Gallo's success was its quest for improving the quality of the wine it produced. To this end, Gallo replanted its vineyard in Livingston in 1946 using grape varieties that had not been previously grown in the area. Various viticultural techniques were experimented with, and in 1947, a formal research program was established to evaluate the results. Specific standards were developed for winemaking and were used thereafter.

In 1965, Julio Gallo established the first Growers Relations Department and shared research findings with area growers. In 1967, Gallo offered long-term contracts to selected growers, giving economic security and incentive to replant vineyards with the better grape varieties recommended by Gallo. During the 1970s, the winery shifted to producing premium varietal wines, and in 1991, it introduced its first ultra-premium wine, 1991 Sonoma Estate Chardonnay. Leading brands for E & J Gallo Wineries have been Gallo, Andre, Bartles & James, and Carlo Rossi. In 2009, the company sold about 60 brands in more than 90 countries, making it the largest U.S. exporter of California wine.

Constellation Brands, the former Canadaigua Wine Company, became the second-largest seller in the U.S. wine market in the mid-1990s with the acquisition of the Almaden and Inglenook wine labels from Heublein for $130.5 million. Although the company name may not be well known, its products such as Almaden, Inglenook, Taylor California Wines, and Paul Masson Wines are household names. The company had annual sales of more than $3.3 billion in 2009.

The company is a father-and-son operation located in upstate New York, started in 1945 by Marvin Sands, who bought a sauerkraut factory and turned it into a winery for $60,000. For ten years, Canandaigua Industries sold fruit wines in bulk to local bottlers who then sold them under their own brand names. In 1954, Sands turned away from bulk wines and created a brand for himself--Richards Wild Irish Rose, a blended red dessert wine. During the 1960s, Wild Irish Rose represented nearly all of the company's sales.

Working from that base, Sands slowly expanded, acquiring 11 small wineries through 1984. Then the company entered the wine cooler market with its Country Wine Coolers. Although the company suffered an operating loss of $20 million in 1987 and 1988 due to expensive advertising, Sands realized the power of the company's distribution network and began looking for established brands.

In 1991 Canadaigua made its first major purchase with Cook's Champagne for $60 million. Then came additional purchases in 1993, 1994, 1998, and 1999. By the end of the twentieth century, Canadaigua was posting annual sales of $740 million. In 2009, the company sold more than 100 brands of wine, beer, and spirits in 150 countries.

Another industry leader in the early 2010s was Jackson Family Wines (JFW). Founded by billionaire Jess Jackson, JFW sells the top-selling chardonnay in the United States: the Kendall-Jackson (a subsidiary of JFW) Vintner's Reserve. The company also makes merlot, sauvignon blanc, pinot noir, cabernet sauvignon, and zinfandel varieties from 14,000 acres of vineyards in California.

Workforce

In 2008, U.S. wineries employed 34,489 people, up from 28,772 in 2005, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. About 43 percent of employees in the industry were production workers earning an average of $20.54 an hour. The majority of wineries were family-owned and located in California.

America and the World

U.S. wine companies' efforts to establish joint ventures in Europe in the early 2000s were not as successful as had been hoped. Controlled by small producers and cooperatives, experiences there led U.S. companies to the more successful, growing trend of teaming with Australian companies, who were more than willing to establish a greater foothold in the United States. However, overseas planting of premium varietals elsewhere had been growing at a fast pace and was expected to become a significant new source of wine for U.S. consumers. In fact, California wineries bought unprecedented amounts of overseas wine to meet consumer demand for low-priced everyday wine and to expand their existing line of products.

Demand for Australian wine in the United States skyrocketed as American consumers enjoyed the Australian style of wine. Its worldwide trademark of generous flavors, soft tannins, and accessible fruit made this wine easier to like when young, a perfect style of wine for Americans. In 1990, the Australians shipped only 578,000 cases of wine to the United States. By the decade's end, the Australian Wine Bureau reported that more than 4 million cases of Australian wine would be shipped to the United States in 2001, and by 2026, shipments should total more than 10 million cases with an estimated value of $440 million. Chilean wine became popular in the early 2000s as well, with Chilean exports up 15.6 percent, but falling prices earned the companies only 1.4 percent more income. Exports of Chilean wine to the United States fell 1.8 percent in 2001. South African wines, meanwhile, grew faster than projected, growing by 29 percent and increasing 133 percent in value.

In 2001, the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, and New Zealand signed the Mutual Acceptance Agreement on Oenological Practices. The wine trade agreement was a significant development in promoting international wine commerce and loosened trade restrictions for U.S. wines. John De Luca, president and CEO of the Wine Institute in San Francisco said, "This agreement is a breakthrough for the world wine trade that recognizes the effectiveness of other country's regulatory and enforcement systems for assuring that producers comply with its country's standards.".

U.S. wine exports, 90 percent of which came from California, increased in the early to mid-2000s, reaching 106.9 million gallons valued at $876 million in 2006. As the economic recession of the late 2000s took hold, however, U.S. wine exports dropped. Value of exports was estimated at $912 million in 2009, 9.5 percent less than 2008. Volume also decreased in 2009, dropping 14.9 percent to 110.4 million gallons, according to the Wine Institute.

The European Union remained the top export market for U.S. wines in 2009, with $380 million in revenues, a decrease of 22 percent from 2008. Other important markets were Canada ($242 million, down 7 percent); Japan ($79 million, up 28 percent); Hong Kong ($47 million, up 84 percent); and China ($36 million, up 64 percent).

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