Radio and Television Broadcasting and Communications Equipment

SIC 3663

Companies in this industry

Industry report:

This industry manufactures radio and television broadcasting and communications equipment. Important products of this industry are closed-circuit and cable television equipment; studio audio and video equipment; light communications equipment; transmitters, transceivers, and receivers (except household and automotive); cellular radio telephones; fiber optics equipment; communication antennas; receivers; RF power amplifiers; satellite communications systems (space and ground segments); and fixed and mobile radio systems. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing household audio and communications equipment are classified in SIC 3651: Household Audio and Video Equipment; those manufacturing intercommunications equipment are classified in SIC 3669: Communications Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified; and those manufacturing consumer radio and television receiving antennas are classified in SIC 3679: Electronic Components, Not Elsewhere Classified.

Industry Snapshot

This industry covers a range of interrelated and sometimes competing communications systems, continually reinventing itself as its individual segments grow. Consumer trends, regulations, technological advances, and corporate decisions shape the emerging structure. The electromagnetic spectrum, through which wireless communications companies transmit signals, is controlled by the federal government, which exerted profound influence over this industry in the mid-2000s with new regulations and legislation.

Because communications systems were rapidly being transformed by the demand for customized, interconnected, and wireless services, products leading growth in this industry included wireless communication systems (pagers, cellular phones, personal communications systems), mobile communications equipment, and satellite communications devices.

Organization and Structure

In the mid-2000s this category contained several different types of communications technologies. Connectivity between these technologies was increasing, resulting in hybrid products and systems. This was reflected by the diversity of the players in this industry, which included cable television, cellular, electronics, telephone, computer, and satellite communications companies. Wireless communications services included cellular, paging, and specialized mobile radio.

Typically, high-technology consumer electronics equipment became less expensive in the years after introduction. This drop was seen in many products offered by this industry, and it helped to drive growth by attracting new consumer markets.

The early to mid-1990s saw significant growth in the paging industry due to increasingly sophisticated and lower-priced products and services. The number of paging subscribers in the United States grew significantly during the 1990s, reaching approximately 50 million by the decade's end, a healthy increase from 14 million at the beginning of 1993. The industry saw double-digit growth in the number of paging and messaging subscribers through 1997. Despite this growth, however, the vast majority of the leaders in the field of paging had been losing money steadily during the latter half of the that decade due to heavy competition in the industry, which was brought about by fierce price cutting schemes.

During the 1990s, the pager--which was initially popular with busy professionals such as doctors, business executives, and other "on call" professionals--successfully infiltrated the nonbusiness market. Pagers eventually became popular with parents trying to contact their children, waiters who needed to know when orders were ready, teenagers, and anyone with an interest in staying connected to others.

However, in the early 2000s the paging industry began facing some serious issues of viability as cellular telephones became increasing popular and affordable. By the mid-2000s, cellular companies were offering integrated cell phone packages that included one- and two-way paging systems along with telephone services. Subsequently, the number of subscribers to paging and messaging services began to decline. Although one-way paging fell off sharply by the mid-2000s, the industry increased the number of two-way data and voice messaging systems.

Cellular Telephones.
Cellular telephones got their name from the small regions (cells) into which service areas were divided. Each cell contained a base station with a low-power transmitter/receiver. Base stations were connected to mobile telephone switching offices (MTSOs), either by telephone wire or microwave transmission. A computer at the switching office coordinated calls for the service area and monitored the calls' signal strength. When the signal lost strength because the caller was exiting the cell, the MTSO switched the call to the next cell. Cells sometimes overlapped one another or had gaps between them because of topographical obstructions.

The number of U.S. cellular subscribers was approximately 155 million at the end of 2003 and increased to nearly 210 million by the end of 2005, representing approximately 70% of the population. By the early 2000s, operators were replacing their analog technology with digital technology. This transition was viewed as critical to the cellular industry's competitiveness. A digital cellular system transmitted a caller's voice by converting the sound waves into a numerical code, rather than a wave pattern, as in analog systems. Calling capacity was expected to increase by a factor of three or more with digital cell sites. In addition to increased capacity, the conversion to digital offered other advantages: lower unit costs, better quality, increased privacy, and the promise of advanced services and data transmission.

Technological innovations in electronic circuitry and in the intelligence built into the cellular network resulted in new features that made cellular more attractive, and as phones and service plans became more affordable--partly due to a tough competitive market--cell phone use became increasingly common with the public sector. In the mid-2000s, high-tech phones and all-in-one service packages were quickly inundating the market. So-called "smart phones" with color screens, camera and video features, internet access, texting and "walkie-talkie" technology were driving sales. Phone units became smaller, lighter, and high-end models included unique gaming and data storage features.

Another development affecting the structure of the cellular industry was the creation by Independent Telecommunications Network Inc. (ITN) of a nationwide Signaling System 7 backbone network to transport cellular calls between cell sites. An advanced network protocol, Signaling System 7 managed traffic flow through a telephone network. This significant development enabled the elimination of charges related to "roaming" agreements between operators and special access codes that complicated the use of cellular phones outside of home service regions.

Personal Communications Services.
Personal communications networks or services (PCS) involved low-powered micro-cellular technology that operates in the 900 MHz band. A digital system, PCS enables a person carrying a pocket-sized phone to be contacted at the same number no matter where the person is. It transmits calls via radio waves to base stations clustered in many service areas.

On September 23, 1993, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) authorized 160 MHz of spectrum for PCS. Starting in 1994, the FCC began auctioning PCS licenses, which generated billions for the federal government and stimulated the creation of a new generation of wireless services and products. Hundreds of companies applied to the FCC to operate PCS systems. Carriers invested in new transceivers, and consumers purchased feature-rich new phones and wireless portable devices.

The FCC enforces anti-collusion rules on business contracts between broadband licensees, auction winners, and eligible participants in ongoing broadband block auctions. These rules "place significant limitations on an auction participant's ability to pursue business opportunities involving services in the geographic area in which it has applied for a license," according to the FCC. The anti-collusion rules were intended to ensure competitiveness in the auction process and in the post-auction market structure, according to a public notice issued by the FCC on August 28, 1996.

Microwave and Satellite Systems.
One of the more mature technologies in this category, microwave transmission can be achieved via terrestrial or satellite systems. Terrestrial, or ground, systems work by sending very high frequency signals from transmitters to repeater stations and back to receivers. For these systems to work, there must be no obstructions, such as mountains, between stations. Satellite transmission works similarly but the repeater station is placed in orbit usually with the region it serves. Because satellites lack the geographic constraints of terrestrial systems, they are better suited for long-distance, point-to-multipoint transmissions such as television broadcasts. Microwave and satellite systems also can be used to transmit audio, video, and other forms of data.

Microwave systems can be categorized as long-haul (transmission distances greater than five miles) or short-haul applications. Common carriers, oil companies, electric utilities, broadcast and cable television operators, pipeline industries, and government agencies use long-haul microwave equipment. Almost 90 percent of public and private television stations transmit signals via satellite. Short-haul customers include universities, institutions, corporations, hotel chains, hospitals, local area networks, cellular phone networks, and local governments.

Beginning in the 1990s, the United States saw an explosion in global positioning system (GPS) units. The GPS marked the beginning of a technological revolution in navigational aids. Originally developed by the U.S. Department of Defense as an alternative to traditional radio navigation, the GPS used a system of twenty-four satellites to triangulate the position of a receiver. The signals could identify a receiver's position within a range of about 100 meters. New products that used the GPS for military, aviation, marine, survey and mapping purposes, and tracking and car navigation came onto the market regularly. In the first half of the 2000s, GPS equipment sales exploded in the United States, doubling from $7.5 billion in 2000 to $15.0 billion in 2004 with some 6.5 million units sold. Sales growth is expected to reach $22.0 billion by 2008. Many luxury model cars began to provide GPS systems as standard equipment; handheld GPS units also improved in popularity, as well as add-on features to cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs).

Background and Development

This industry has developed by continually shedding its old identity as new technologies come along. For example, Motorola, one of the giants in the industry, began in the car radio business. The company sold Handie-Talkies to the Army in World War II and later installed radios in police cars. Many of the companies in this category have been defense contractors.

In the early 1980s, when cellular phones were introduced, AT&T predicted that by 2000 about 900,000 mobile phones would be in use in the United States. By 1993, that number had already been exceeded a dozen times. In the early 1990s, cordless phones began to outsell corded phones. Much of this activity would have been inconceivable before the U.S. Justice Department filed suit against AT&T, and the Bell monopoly was subsequently broken up in the early 1980s. Until 1957, when the courts ruled that telephone customers had the right to use non-AT&T telephone equipment as long as it did not interfere with the public network, everyone used AT&T equipment and service. AT&T's dominant position as the primary U.S. carrier was finally challenged in 1969 by a company using newly developed microwave technology. That company would become MCI Communications Corporation. The industry did not undergo complete restructuring, however, until the Justice Department officially broke the monopoly in 1984, making way for new communications technologies, equipment, and services.

The accelerating development of wireless personal communications services continued to fuel the demand for radio base station equipment, antennas, low earth orbit satellite systems, and wireless equipment. Because there had been no decision on which of two rival digital standards--time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA)--would be the industry standard, there was a market for products that supported multiple interfaces. Generic base station transceivers that handle calls using all modulation standards, including U.S. and foreign, analog and digital, voice and data, might also be available for use with a variety of wireless networks, including paging and PCS.

Some industry observers believed the shift from wireline to wireless communications could be as profound as the shift from gaslight to electric light bulbs. After first underestimating the market for wireless communications, major communications, computers, electronics, and data companies began investing heavily in it. AT&T's deal to pay $12.6 billion for McCaw Cellular is one of many examples. A highly publicized health scare in 1993, in which a Florida widower claimed that cellular phone use caused his wife's brain cancer, spurred research into a possible cellular cancer link. Long-term impact on the growth of the market was projected to be negligible, however, unless a viable link was found. The FCC decision to reallocate 200 MHz of spectrum to make way for emerging PCS technologies was vital to the development of the industry and would likely be looked back at as a landmark decision.

The Telecommunications Competition and Deregulation Act of 1996 also had a strong impact on the radio and electronics field. It eliminated monopolies in cable television and telephone companies, opening fields traditionally regulated as public utilities to competition. Perhaps the most controversial part of the law, however, was the introduction of the so-called "v-chip"--a programmable microchip that interprets an encoded program rating transmitted as part of the television signal. The v-chip is intended to allow parents to block programs whose content ratings are deemed unacceptable. Some perceived it to be a veiled form of censorship.

The Clinton administration's technology-friendly position fostered industry growth throughout the 1990s. Clinton proposed a broad ten-year plan to force the Pentagon and other federal agencies to cede control of a big block of the nation's airwaves, thus making them available for new commercial technologies. This action came in addition to the FCC's 1993 decision to reallocate the public airwaves.

Technological advances like cellular digital packet data (CPCD) for cellular service were introduced to help analog cellular systems compete with new digital systems. CPCD was adopted by companies with analog systems to make them more competitive with digital systems.

The FCC decision to reallocate 220 MHz of spectrum previously occupied by fixed microwave users supported increased microwave equipment sales by allowing fixed microwave users to relocate to higher frequencies and by freeing 200 MHz of formerly government-occupied spectrum for private sector use.

Pager innovations during the late 1990s included two-way paging, whereby e-mails could be sent and received from pagers equipped with tiny keyboards, and what had been called a mobile answering machine, which allowed the sender to leave a voice message for the receiver. In 1999, stocks began to be traded via these new smart pagers. By the early 2000s, pagers also had become Web-enabled.

The wireless internet technology fostered the birth of smart phones--digital cellular phones that functioned like micro-computers. They allowed the user to receive and send e-mails and instant text messages along with connecting to corporate intranets and the Internet. Business people were no longer tied to the computer to keep abreast of the latest in news and transactions in the global arena. In early 2000s, the trend toward converging devices continued as PDAs integrated with wireless phones. However, while some users preferred carrying only one device instead of a wireless phone, PDA, and pager, others preferred to have separate devices. For example, it was not possible to simultaneously use the address book or calendar feature of an integrated or "smart" device while using it as a phone.

The wireless application protocol (WAP), a technical standard that linked cellular phones and handheld computers to the Internet, was agreed on in the late 1990s. It was hoped that the WAP based mini-browser would help the industry to grow and flourish in much the same way that MOSAIC, the first Web browser for computers, had helped the computer industry to grow in the early 1990s. However, while more than 75 percent of new wireless phones were capable of Internet connections by the early 2000s, many American users were slow to take advantage of this feature. Plastics News cited data from the Yankee Group indicating that only 15 percent of U.S. subscribers were using wireless Internet services, even though 45 million individuals owned Internet-ready devices.

Despite slow initial adoption levels, the Strategis Group expected the number of American wireless data users to grow from 2 percent in early 2002 to 60 percent by 2008, according to Office Solutions. The potential growth in wireless communications equipment was not just limited to Internet-ready handheld devices. It also extended to network infrastructures, including wireless local area networks (WLANs).

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, total shipment values for the category that includes radio and television broadcasting and wireless communications equipment manufacturing jumped 22 percent in a year-on-year increase, from $40.65 billion in 1999 to $52.31 billion in 2000. However, recessive economic conditions, as well as market saturation and tightening competition that drove prices down, resulted in a 13 percent decrease in total value of shipments in 2001, to $45.33 billion. The industry continued to decline in 2002, with total shipment values reaching just $31.88 billion, down 39 percent in just two years.

Cell phone handsets, in particular, rebounded in 2004, growing by 25 percent as economic improvement led consumers to upgrade to camera phones, new features, and trendy clam-shaped handsets. However, growth slowed to 9 percent during 2005 due to market saturation, with 210 million Americans, representing 70% of the population, owning cellular phones. According to research firm Student Monitor, use among college students was nearly 90 percent.

As the number of potential new users dwindled, this saturation led to heavy competition among service providers. One industry development served to increase this competition even more: Many users, especially those in the business world, were reluctant to switch to wireless carriers because of the hassle involved with changing phone numbers. However, in late 2003 the FCC planned to enable wireless customers to retain phone numbers when moving from one service provider to another, making customer retention more pressing for providers.

Although growth in communications equipment is projected to remain positive, the robust growth of the late 1990s is over. In the mid-2000s a paradigm shift was taking place in the industry--from providing new customers with equipment to upgrading the equipment of existing customers. After a three-year slide, the cellular industry showed marked improvement during 2004, with the market driven by improved equipment with advanced features and services, as well as a slowly improving economy.

The 2000s has seen a blurring of product lines as, for example, PDAs incorporate a telephone feature and telephones come equipped with Internet access and GPS capabilities. The trend to constantly improve and advance the "all-in-one" product is driving the industry. As the cell phone has shifted from a luxury or business item to an everyday necessity for millions of U.S. consumers, equipment manufacturers have begun to attend closely to issues of trendiness and style, as well as functionality. According to The Wall Street Journal, cell phones are often seen as a fashion accessory and a personal statement. Thus, new, fresh designs are one key to turning over existing customers.

Current Conditions

According to data published by D&B Sales & Marketing Solutions, there were an estimated 3,637 manufacturers of radio and television broadcasting and communications equipment in the U.S. valued at more than $70,626.5 million with industry-wide employment of 107,091 workers in 2010. On average, each manufacturer employed 31 workers who generated about $24.9 million.

The radio and television communications equipment manufacturing comprised the largest industry sector with 29.8 percent in market share generating nearly $26 billion in 2010. Radio broadcasting and communications equipment manufacturing accounted for 8 percent generating nearly $1.8 billion. Satellite communications equipment manufacturing accounted for 15.9 percent in market share and more than $2.4 billion in revenues. Additionally, space satellite communications equipment manufacturing reported nearly $2.7 billion in revenues with a 3.9 percent in market share. Television broadcasting and communications equipment manufacturing held 3.6 percent in market share with sales totaling $1.5 billion, while mobile communication equipment manufacturing boasted $1.2 billion in revenues. Based on sales, electronic telemetering equipment was responsible for more than $31.2 billion of the reported $70.6 billion industry total.

The total number of U.S. cellular subscribers grew to 278 million in 2009, up 5.1 percent compared to 2008. The industry attributed the increase in subscribers the direct result of falling wireless provider's service prices prompting some consumers to drop their landlines. However, according to the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), "subscriber growth is nearing the saturation point." While wireless subscriber growth may dwindle as early as 2013 as the market becomes saturated, demand for smartphones equipped with the ability to support data applications will be the market driver.

The industry shipped 1.15 billion cell phones globally in 2009, projected to climb 11.7 percent to 1.29 billion units in 2010. The mobile third-generation or commonly called 3G generated $86.4 billion in 2010, up 34.6 percent compared to $64.2 billion in 2009.

According to research firm, iSuppli fourth-generation or 4G was also driving sales in the wireless communications equipment segment in 2011. Shipment values grew 15.1 percent in 2010 to $251.1 billion and were expected to increase 20.6 percent to $302.7 billion in 2011, with no indication of sales slowing anytime soon. Overall worldwide mobile communications equipment shipments were on target to reach $359.3 billion by 2014.

Industry Leaders

The massive capital requirements for building unique telecommunications systems guarantees that the companies involved will be large and powerful. In recent years, the biggest players in the computer, communications, and information industries have maneuvered for the coming wireless revolution. In the mid-2000s, the communication equipment industry was dominated by Asian and European companies. Finland-based Nokia Mobile Phones, the leader with a 40% worldwide marketshare, reported revenues of more than $32 billion in 2007 and roughly 30,000 employees. The company reported $56.2 billion in 2010 with 132,427 employees. Other major international players include Samsung, LG Siemens, and Sony Ericsson.

Motorola is the leading U.S.-based supplier of communications equipment. The company posted revenues of about $30 billion in 2006, of which approximately 54 percent was generated by the sale of wireless handsets. Motorola had a broad product line compatible with most standards and long-standing experience in radio electronics. It is among the world's leading suppliers of pagers, two-way radios, and dispatch systems for commercial fleets. Motorola was a leader in the global cellular telephone market, according to U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) reports. Motorola was instrumental in the development of the Iridium project, a $4 billion system that was developed to connect calls around the world via sixty-six small satellites in low earth orbit.

Motorola spun off its smartphone business into a standalone company in January 2011 creating Motorola Mobility to focus on its Enterprise Mobility and Networks businesses under Motorola Solutions. Motorola Mobility Holdings reported $11 billion in 2009 with 20,000 employees. Motorola Solutions reported $19.2 billion with 51,000 employees in 2009.


According the U.S. Census Bureau, there were approximately 911 establishments operating in the wireless communications industry in 2006. They employed 80,267 people, including 32,676 production workers, who earned more than $7.5 billion. The industry generated $39.6 billion in sales in 2007, up from 38.2 billion the previous year. Mergers and consolidations among manufacturers, as well as improved productivity and technology, has meant declining employment. Overall employment fell by 40 percent between 1997 and 2002, and production-related positions were cut nearly in half, down 49 percent over the six-year period.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the total number of establishments operating in the radio and television broadcasting and wireless communications equipment manufacturing industry plummeted to 685 in 2008 employing 79,613 workers.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the radio and television broadcasting and wireless communications equipment manufacturing industry was valued at more than $32.6 billion in 2009, a decrease from the 2008 total of more than $41.5 billion. Additionally, a total of 28,234 employees worked in production in 2009 (of 76,502 employees), putting in nearly 55 million hours to earn wages of more than $1.5 billion.

America and the World

This industry is positioned to take advantage of demand from developing markets abroad, such as Eastern Europe, Central and South America, and China. American companies are increasingly linking up with overseas competitors to create global partnerships, and the U.S. cellular industry is highly competitive in cellular licenses awarded to foreign operators. As the U.S. market becomes saturated, manufacturers will continue to seek out new customers in the booming international market, which saw cellular phone sales eclipse 1 billion units (1.15) sold in 2007, up from 991 million in 2006, according to PC World magazine.

Throughout 2009 domestic imported wireless communications equipment was robust, as was exports that totaled about 60 percent of domestic production. Between 2006 and 2009, exports have been relatively steady at 26 percent annually. Also, in 2009, the U.S. radio and television broadcasting and wireless communications equipment manufacturing industry was valued at an estimated $35.9 billion, with a profit of about 40 percent. The U.S. imported $63 billion from 153 countries and exported $22.2 billion to 212 countries. Overall demand for wireless communications equipment reached $76.8 billion.

Research and Technology

Because of the technological orientation of this industry, research and technology are a continual, high priority concern. Most of the research and technology is intended to achieve one of several goals: to maximize an existing technology; to combine existing technologies for enhanced competitiveness across technologies; and to improve technology in existing products to attract consumers with next-generation models.

Whereas in the past, equipment manufacturers have focused on making their products smaller and lighter, in the mid-2000s the industry was advancing technology to add new features. By 2005 nearly two-thirds of all cell phone sales were camera phones. The industry expects to upgrade pixels, processor, and memory functions of phones to increase the overall quality of the camera. More and more phones were including two-way radio functions, serving as "instant access" walkie-talkies.

One of the next trends on the near horizon is the inclusion of MP3 players in phones, which allow users to play music downloaded to the phone. The industry also is continuing to make Web access more functional and affordable. Research also is underway to bring television to phone screens. The eventual institution of the third-generation and fourth-generation communications, known as 3G and 4G, will likely provide the tools necessary to build a viable operating support system, which will result in a big jump in the technology available to the mobile device industry. Ultimately, the industry is pushing its products toward becoming small microprocessors that function much like miniature computers.

Meanwhile, cell phone manufacturers were joining the growing trend towards green technology. For instance, bioplastics by definition are plastics made from renewable sources like food crops, however, when you mix bio-plastics with oil-based plastics that can in turn be used to manufacturer cell phones.

© COPYRIGHT 2018 The Gale Group, Inc. This material is published under license from the publisher through the Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan. All inquiries regarding rights should be directed to the Gale Group. For permission to reuse this article, contact the Copyright Clearance Center.

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