The Iowa-Grimwood formula: rate of flow formula for confined fires.(Firefighting Technology)

The most impressive fact about the research on fog nozzles that has been done during the past 50 years in more than 10 countries is the convergence of all this research upon the same conclusions. These conclusions, the author concludes, establish without any doubt that fog nozzles can be used safely and effectively to fight confined structure fires, as well as other types of fires

A very interesting result of the research on fog nozzles is the proof that two rate of-flow formulas created in two different countries 36 years apart are actually the same formula. One formula uses the English system of measurement while the other formula uses the metric system. So, it is not immediately obvious that the two formulas are actually the same.

The switch from using smooth bore nozzles to the use of fog nozzles began in the US after a speech delivered by Chief Lloyd Layman of the Parkersburg W V Fire Department to the Fire Department Instructor's Conference (FDIC) in Memphis, TN, USA, in 1950. chief Layman had conducted the first research on the use of fog nozzles at the US Coast Guard Fire School, Ft. McHenry, Baltimore, MD, USA, during World War II.

The first formula was created in 1954 by two men, Keith Royer (Director) and Bill Nelson (Chief Instructor), at the Fire Service Institute of Iowa State University at Ames, Iowa, USA. …

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